By Cheryl Revell and Megan Kemple

Bees pollinate important food crops, honeybees provide us with honey, and wasps kill large numbers of plant-feeding insects and nuisance flies.1,2 Because of their many benefits, entomologists like those at Washington State University advise to "control them only if absolutely necessary."1 Remember that many bees and wasps are not aggressive and will only sting when handled or stepped on.

If you want to do something other than reach for a spray can of poison, you should first correctly identify the insect and determine whether it's a threat. Each species has different behaviors, and successful non-chemical techniques are tailored to the particular species. If you decide that the bees or wasps need to be removed, BE CAREFUL! These pests sting and can be dangerous if you are allergic to their venom.

Have other pests that are bugging you? Visit our Managing Pests and Weeds page for more tips!



Description: The most common yellowjackets in the Northwest are the western yellowjacket (Paravespula pensylvanica), the common yellowjacket (Paravespula vulgaris), and the aerial yellowjacket (Dolichovespula arenaria).The German yellowjacket (Paravespula germanica) is becoming widespread in Washington.1

Yellowjackets are about 1/2 inch long with jagged bands of bright yellow and black on the abdomen. The head and thorax are black with yellow spots and bars.They have a short, narrow waistand a broad abdomen that tapers off like a cone to a sharp point.4

Yellowjackets are the most commonly encountered wasp species and are sometimes called the "meat bee"2 because workers scavenge for meat or sweets at picnics and around homes.1 Females can sting repeatedly.4 They will land on people who are nearby and crawl inside their clothes5 and are extremely defensive when their nests are disturbed.4

Read our Yellowjackets page for more information and tips for trapping and removal. Also, check out our guest blog posts on how to remove and control yellowjackets: Natural Yellowjacket Control, Part 1 and Natural Yellowjacket Control, Part 2.

Baldfaced Hornet
Photo: J. N. Dell

Description: Baldfaced hornets are non-aggressive yellowjackets.6 They have black and ivory markings and stripes on most of their body.7 They can have nests close to human activity all summer without being discovered or being a nuisance. Nests are large and football-shaped and can be found attached to shrub branches and trees.7

Control: Baldfaced hornets' nests are located aboveground and can sometimes be removed without professional help.5 Hanging nests can be removed by placing a garbage bag over a wire hoop made from a clothes hanger. Hit the nest with a gloved hand, knock it into the garbage bag, and close the bag quickly. Then place the bag in the freezer to kill the hornets.5 Large nests may need to be removed professionally.

Although it may sound risky, you can use your own vacuum to remove hornet nests if you have an extension wand. Take a look at the hornets flying in and out of the entrance hole of the nest. Find the spot 3 or 4 inches outside the hole that all the hornets pass. When it is dark or just before sunset, prop the vacuum extension so that its end is right at that spot. Run the vacuum for 2 or 3 hours. Repeat for 4 or 5 nights. According to Lane County (Oregon) bee removal specialist Tom Howell, you will get phenomenal results!5

Howell cautions that you must not vibrate the nest and irritate the hornets. If they become agitated, turn off your flashlight so the stinging insects will not fly toward the beam of light and your body. It may be best to have someone else hold the flashlight so the person operating the vacuum can focus on staying cautious.5

Most of the hornets will die as they are sucked up the vacuum hose.5 After you turn the machine off, cover or stop up the end of the hose and leave the vacuum cleaner alone until all the insects have stopped buzzing. To make sure they're dead you can then put the bag in the freezer.

Paper Wasps

Photo: Michael Apel, via Wikimedia Commons

Description: Paper wasps are distinguished from yellowjackets by their long legs.1 They are 1 inch long, have distinct, slender waists.2 Many native species are golden brown with patches of yellow and red.2 The European paper wasp, first identified in the U.S. in 1981, has yellow and black markings that resemble those of yellowjackets.9

Native paper wasps are less aggressive than yellowjackets and rarely sting humans8 unless their nest is located near doors, a fruit tree, or some other place where people are active.4 In protecting their nests, European paper wasps are more aggressive that native paper wasps and are alert to movement up to 20 feet away. Typically they will not attack unless a person is very close.9

Paper wasps hang their paper nests in protected areas such as under eaves, rocks, or tree branches, or in attics, exterior light fixtures and birdhouses.1,9 The nest hangs like an open umbrella from a stalk and has open cells that can be seen if you look up from below.2 The ends of the cells are open with the heads of the larvae exposed to view.6

Paper wasps, like yellowjackets, die when the weather gets cold, except for the overwintering queens.1 Native paper wasps do not use nests for more than one season,1 while European paper wasps may occasionally use a nest from the previous year.9

Control: Paper wasps can be left alone in many cases. Around doors and other busy areas, it's easiest to remove nests early in the season as the queen is starting to build her nest.9 The nest can be knocked down or hosed down. When nests are still small, they can also be vacuumed off at night when the queen and workers are home. Use a long extension wand on a shop vacuum that has a few inches of water plus a little dish detergent. Exercise caution when dealing with European paper wasps.

Mud Daubers
Photo: Jeff Hahn, UNM

Description: Mud daubers are usually a single color, metallic blue or black.10 They are thread-waisted.10 They do not defend their nests and rarely sting.10 They build hard mud tube nests, usually under bridges, on walls, underneath eaves, or in attics.5,10

Control: Oregon bee removal specialist Tom Howell recommends leaving mud dauber nests alone because they are extremely docile, and there is only one per nest. He knows of only two people who have ever been stung by a mud dauber. "One of them sat on it, and the other pinched it," says Howell.5 If you feel that nest removal is absolutely necessary, remove nests in the early morning or evening when the wasps are not flying. Vacuuming can also be used to remove mud daubers.

Cicada Killer Wasps 

Photo: Purdue University

Description: Cicada killer wasps cause alarm because of their size and the stingless male's habit of dive-bombing. Females reach 1 3/4 inches in length and males 1 1/4 inches.11 The eastern cicada killer has a striking pattern of black, yellow and red,11 while the less bothersome western cicada killer is brown and yellow.12 Despite the threatening appearance, it's difficult to provoke one of these wasps into stinging.11

Cicada killers are solitary wasps, each having its own burrow. However, large numbers of burrows may be clustered together on favorable sites. Cicada killers prefer to burrow on dry bare soil, sand, flower beds, and areas with sparse vegetation. Females also excavate nesting chambers and then go cruising for cicadas. She brings back her prey and drags it down into the chamber to serve as food for her offspring.11

Control: Cicada killers do not pose a stinging threat, so control is seldom required.11 Their bothersome presence usually lasts less than two months.11 However, if wasp numbers are high or in a sensitive area, the following tips can help with control and prevention. For a small number of wasps, eliminate wasps by swatting with a tennis racket or capturing in a butterfly net. Cover clustered burrows with a clear plastic tarp to prevent access and heat up the ground. In garden beds, a 3 inch layer of hardwood chips may deter nesting. Cicadas rarely burrow in dense, vigorous turf, so improve infested lawns by using appropriate liming, fertilization and watering.13 Mow high during nesting season.



Photo: Erik Hooymans

Description: European honeybees are about an inch long with a black and reddish brown body covered with hairs. The female stings one time and then dies.4 Honeybees are usually not aggressive or threatening.8 Honeybees nest in many different kinds of places, but popular sites include inside chimneys or hollow trees, and in the walls of houses, barns, sheds and pump houses. Nests can also be found hanging from trees.5 The nests are made of wax cells.4 Honeybees keep their hives at 95 degrees Fahrenheit, so you may be able to actually feel their heat through the wall.14 The entire colony lives through the winter.4

Control: Honeybees are liberal in where they decide to nest and are happy to make use of a variety of different kinds of hive sites.5 Never attempt to remove or destroy a honeybee hive, and remember that honeybees are beneficial insects and are not usually threatening.8 If you decide you must remove a hive, it is necessary to get professional help. Hives can contain a huge amount of honey and wax. Because bees keep their honey cool by fanning it with their wings, removing the bees means that the honeycomb can melt, attracting more bees and insect pests.5

Africanized Honeybees 

Photo: Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida Dept. of Agriculture

Description: The Africanized honeybee looks like a European honeybee, and like the European honeybee it stings only once.4 However, they are more defensive and less predictable. They defend a greater area around their nest and respond faster and in greater numbers than the European honeybee.15  Africanized bees are not expected to pose a significant threat to the Pacific Northwest.

Control: Welcome or not, these bees have made their way up from South America and are now present in some parts of the U.S. Although cartoons showing them swarming around and carrying innocent children away from recess are an exaggeration, they are more aggressive and more easily upset than typical honeybees.16

If you live in an area where Africanized bees are present, prevent problems by using the following tips:

  • Eliminate potential nest sites (abandoned vehicles, empty containers, anything with a hole, old tires).16
  • Inspect trees, garages, sheds and fences regularly.16
  • Fill all wall, chimney, and plumbing- related gaps that are larger than 1/8 inch.16
  • Cover rain spouts, vents, etc., with 1/8-inch hardware cloth.

To prevent children from being stung by Africanized bee stings, warn them to respect all bees and notify an adult if they find a nest or swarm.16

If you find a nest in or near your home, let professionals manage the problem but ask them to use alternatives to conventional pesticides. In some states, an insecticidal soap product called M-Pede can be used by licensed pest control personnel to kill Africanized bees.


Description: Bumblebees have round yellow and black bodies covered with fine hair.4 They build their nests in the ground, under slabs, or in wall voids.14 They are not aggressive. However, the females can sting more than once.4

Control: Bumblebees are nonaggressive and can be good neighbors. Live with them whenever possible. If you must remove bumblebees, vacuuming (see above section on "Baldfaced Hornets") is effective. Because the entrance hole to bumblebee nests is often larger than with other stinging insects, it may be difficult to locate the spot in the air that all the bees fly past. You may need to make the hole smaller by using a piece of tape or a board to cover part of the hole. During the day, when the bees are active, turn the vacuum on. Continue to run the vacuum for 2 hours per day for about 4 days or until you do not see any more bees.5

Carpenter Bees
Photo: US Forest Service

Description: Carpenter bees are large and round like the bumblebee, but are totally black with a bald upper abdomen. They are solitary insects and build nests in tunnels in dead trees or wooden buildings.4 They are not likely to sting unless handled, and have a surprisingly mild sting.4

Control: Carpenter bees are valuable pollinators and rarely cause severe damage.17 "Prevention is the main approach to managing carpenter bees," according to the University of California Statewide IPM Project. "Fill depressions and cracks in wood surfaces so they are less attractive. Paint or varnish exposed surfaces regularly to reduce weathering. Fill unoccupied holes with steel wool and caulk to prevent their reuse. Wait until after bees have emerged before filling the tunnels. Once filled, paint or varnish the repaired surfaces. Protect rough areas, such as ends of timbers, with wire screening or metal flashing."17

For expert advice tailored to your pest or weed issues, check out our sliding scale Pest and Weed Management Consultation services.

  1. Landolt, P.J. and A.L. Antonelli. 2003. Yellowjackets and paper wasps. Washington State University Extension.
  2. University of Arizona. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Undated. Information sheet 20: Stinging insect identification tips
  3. Berry, R.E. 1978. Insects and mites of economic importance in the Northwest. Corvallis, OR: OSU Bookstores, Inc.
  4. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. 2012. Yellowjackets and other social wasps.
  5. Personal communication with beekeeper Tom Howell, Feb. 15, 2002.
  6. University of Idaho Extension. Idaho Green Thumb How-To's. 2015. Wasp and hornet control
  7. DeAngelis, Jack. 1998. Urban entomology notes: Yellow jacket wasps. Corvallis: Oregon State University Extension.
  8. Washington State University Insider. 2013. Close encounters of the wasp kind.
  9. Jacobs, S.B. 2019. Insect advice from Extension: European paper wasp. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology.
  10. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. 2019. Pests in gardens and landscapes: Quick tips: Yellowjackets
  11. Sciarappa, W.J. 2004. The cicada killer wasp. Rutgers Cooperative Research and Extension.
  12. 2019. Western Cicada Killer
  13. Frank, S., and E. Youngsteadt. 2002. Cicada killer wasp: Entomology insect notes. North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension.
  14. Koehler, P.G. and D.E. Short. 2002. Stinging or venomous insects and related pests. University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
  15. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. 2011. How to manage pests: Bee and wasp stings.
  16. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2002. Bee alert: Africanized honey bee facts. Publication 8068.
  17. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. 2014. How to manage pests: Carpenter bees

Showing 11 reactions

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  • Gary Brown
    commented 2023-08-20 11:23:59 -0700
    I live in San Antonio, Texas and love red wasps and bees. I never spray pollinators unless they are a real threat to humans; the only wasps I’ve killed were yellow jackets in a door opening.

    My current nest of red wasps is about four to five inches in diameter and seems healthy. It is located under an eave of my own deck. I would like to protect the nest from birds that will eat the eggs.

    I’m thinking of enclosing the nest behind a 2×6′ section of hardware cloth with holes that are 1/2" in diameter. I’m hoping this should allow the wasps to come and go but would keep birds out.

    What do you think of this idea? Is 1/2" the right size openings in the hardware cloth to allow the wasps to pass? Suggestions, please.
  • Kara Kline
    commented 2021-05-29 09:44:41 -0700
    Bumblebees have made a nest in my yard waste bin this year. It is a small species closer in size to a honeybee, but with the body shape of a bumblebee. In the winter will it be safe to dump the bin? The last time there was a bumblebee nest in my yard it got infected with that zombie bee disease. So if possible I want to dump the bin when this hive is done for the year to hopefully discourage diseases. The queens won’t over winter in the bin, right?
  • Jamie Fernandes
    commented 2019-07-22 22:00:52 -0700
    In my daily line of work I try to educate my clients on the importance of bees to the environment. Too often they are killed because they are looked at as a nuisance without fully understanding the full impact of eradicating such a beautiful species. Whenever we encounter bees during our tree service jobs, we take extra care to ensure we do not disrupt their habitat. Thank you for this educational article about the importance of bees.
  • Jake Jacbob
    commented 2019-06-11 18:09:54 -0700
    These insects are often a inconvenience but are necessary in many different ways. We should try to live with them verses always trying to kill them off.
  • Rachael Basye
    commented 2018-08-01 19:26:02 -0700
    I generally leave wasps and hornets alone because they eat bugs in my garden and since we seem to have a shortage of honey bees in the area (except for those kept by beekeepers), they do a better job pollinating than nothing. They really don’t bug me even though I’m terrified of getting stung. Bad childhood experiences lol.
    The problem I have is that we have several paper wasp nests in our eaves, basically every side of the house and it looks like they are of the European variety. Normally I would just wait until winter and knock them down but we HAVE to paint our house this summer. NW weather gives us a very short window of time and the previous owners did zero maintenance on the siding so it’s in bad shape. I don’t want a bunch of pesticides spraying over my garden beds but I’m not going to try to capture them in a bag either, especially those that are 20 feet up. A couple are also close to each other and I’d likely piss off one to get to the other. Wasp stings are very painful as I’ve learned in the past when one flew up my shirt sleeve and attacked my arm and also when I accidentally disturbed a nest on my porch.
    I also don’t want to fork out hundreds of dollars to have them removed. Ugh and I just realized we have a nest in our gutter UNDER the leaf grate so I don’t even know how to get to that. It happens to be right where we set the ladder to get up on the roof.
  • Jen Weez
    commented 2018-06-27 14:06:16 -0700
    I’ve been cleaning roofs in Oregon, specifically around the Portland area for ten years and as I’m outside all day I can vouch with honest testimony that the population of bees IS DEPLETING RAPIDLY! #savethebees Now I’m not one who loves moss bit I have unconditional love for all insects and I still want wasps to be here in another ten years, even if it means a few stings every now and then. With that said please don’t get my attitude twisted. I am so grateful to see websites like this and other movements making a difference and I honestly believe believe bees are making a come back. I think they might be adapting, and I spotted a few new species of bees I think ,as they’re getting bigger and more hairy. If it makes you feel better I have noticed a slight increase of bees while cleaning rooftops around Portland OR in the 1st few weeks, but I hope that’s not because I’ve just been paying more attention.
  • Gaby Allen
    commented 2018-06-26 00:13:31 -0700
    I am so fascinated by insects. I have been vegan for two years and have not fully understood why people choose not to eat honey until recently. I realize now that it is to protect the poor bees, and I can see why. They are so precious. Keep the information coming! It is amazing, thanks for sharing!
  • Rochele Clayton
    commented 2018-04-30 02:27:30 -0700
    There are more honey bees than other types of bee and pollinating insects, so it is the world’s most important pollinator of food crops. It is estimated that one third of the food that we consume each day relies on pollination mainly by bees. Wasps, like bees pollinates plants and flowers as the feed on nectar.
  • Libby Terrell
    commented 2017-12-02 18:04:55 -0800
    What great information about Bees and Wasps. There are so many more types then most people think there is.
  • Geevee Snow
    commented 2016-10-02 17:35:45 -0700
    Your “paper wasp” is a southern yellow jacket, Vespula squamosa.
    Thanks Geevee, we have updated the photo! -NCAP
  • Dorian Mills
    commented 2016-08-21 15:02:18 -0700
    I found a red bug with wings that had spots all over it. Does anyone know what it is?